मंगळवार, १० फेब्रुवारी, २००९

The Role Of Ayurveda and Yoga In Cure Of Psychosomatic Disorders

Author- Dr. Gopal Meghashyam Sawkar,
Lecturer, School Of Health Sciences,
Yashawantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University,
Nashik
Phone- 0253- Off.- 2230718, Res.- 2372315,
Mobile- 9422758069
Email- gsawkar@gmail.com, g_sawkar@yahoo.com

The Role Of Ayurveda and Yoga In The Cure Of
Psychosomatic Disorders

Yoga And Ayurveda Based On The Indian Philosophy-
Indian philosophy is based on spiritualism, which is known as Adhyatma in Sanskrit language. Adhyatma means the study of soul which is the base of our life, which is beyond any birth and death, which is unchangeable, eternal, everlasting, and immortal. This Adhyatma or the study of soul and self realization is deeply rooted in the Vedas, the Upanishadas, the Bhagavad-Gita, the six philosophical schools known as Shaddarshan that is Sankhya, Yoga, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Purvamimansa, Uttarmimansa which is known as Vedanta. Eighteen Puranas (Mythologies), the Ramayana, the Mahabharata explain the Indian philosophy, cultural and moral ideas through the medium of interesting stories to the common people not in touch with the Vedic texts.
Along with philosophy and Adhyatma, Vedic culture is deeply rooted in six Vedangas known as Shiksha, Kalpa, Nirukta, Chhanda, Vyakarana and Jyotisha. Our arts like music, painting, dance, drama, sculpture, architecture, mathematics, geometry are deeply rooted and originated from Vedic tradition. Our sixteen Sanskaras, which begin before our birth, continue throughout our life and even after our death are performed with the Veda mantras.
The Yoga and the Ayurveda are the main branches based on Vedic spiritualism related to our mind and body and grammar to language, Maharshi Patanjali contributed a lot to them. So he is properly praised in this way-
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The Yoga and the Ayurveda are also two different fields having one and the same origin of Vedic tradition, parallel but inter-related to each other aiming at the same thing to enable individual to attain salvation known as ‘Moksha’ in Sanskrit, the highest aim of our life, through the perfect development of body, intellect and mind. Just as Vedic and Upanishadic Rishis like Patanjali are for the Yoga, in the same way the Ayurveda has Dhanwantari and Ashwinikumaras and the scholars like Charaka, Sushruta and Vagbhata.
From the Vedic period onwards the basic principle of these branches are developed and advanced through ages together. They are enriched through new experiences and experiments, inventions and discoveries, new ideas and thoughts. The Indian Rishis are infact scientists who through deep thinking and research work tested the knowledge from time to time, added their own findings to the old ones and made our life perfect and rich.
Yoga is related to the development of mind and body through self-control, muscle and body control, breath control and meditation. Yoga has eight steps known as-
1. Yama- There are five Yamas. Ahimsa- non-violence, Satya- truth, Asteya- non-theft, Brahmacharya- celibacy, Aparigraha.
2. Niyama- There are also five Niyamas. Shaucha- purity, Santosha- satisfaction, Tapa- penance, Swadhyaya- self-study, the Ishwar Pranidhan- to dedicate everything to God.
3. Asanas
4. Pranayama
5. Pratyahara
6. Dharana
7. Dhyana
8. Samadhi
Ayurveda is based on bodily development, the bad effects of imbalance of Vata, Pitta, Kapha and how to maintain their balance, the causes of different diseases, their remedies, medicines and cure.
Yoga and Ayurveda are not against each other nor they are contradictory to each other but interdependent on each other. The old texts of Ayurveda have ample references of Yogic texts and the Yogic texts have Ayurvedic references. Both of them used the principles and theories of each other. The Ayurvedic Panchakarma resembles with the Yogic Shiddhikriyas- purification procedure.
Mind: The Origin Of Psychosomatic Disorders-
Ayurveda is based on spiritualism and Vedic tradition. Both Ayurveda and Yoga accept the existence of mind. The Ayurveda elaborately describes mind, which is atom like, and is spread through out the body, it is also our sixth sense, and in the Gita it is said ‘ ‡×¦üµÖ֝ÖÖÓ´Ö­Ö¿“ÖÖÛÃ´Ö … ’ ‘of all senses I am the mind’. Mind contains Satva, Raja, and Tama properties. Due to imbalance of Raja and Tama there are psychosomatic disorders and mental disorders. Meditating, thinking and aiming are the functions of mind. Ayurveda states three desires as follows-
1. Desire to live
2. Desire for wealth
3. Desire for liberation or salvation
The greed for wealth and our excessive efforts for it bring psychosomatic disorders. While running after the fulfillment of this desire we have lost our peace and health. We find psychosomatic disorders as a result of modern lifestyle. Everybody is running after money and status and that imposes excessive mental strain due to it. As a result we fall prey to hypertension, heart diseases, diabetes and psychosomatic disorders. Mental strain affects heart as well as the whole bodily order.
The Reasons Of Psychosomatic Disorders-
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Mind is the root cause of the sufferings of body as well as senses.
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Sufferings can be experienced in two ways.
1) Due to touch senses
2) Due to psychic contact
Touch sense covers all the limbs of body. Even it is essential for psycho touch. It means that even for psychological knowledge somatic sense of touch is necessary. It is also natural that somatic symptoms of sufferings are the result of psychological disorder. So it is also necessary to find out if somatic symptoms of sufferings of the patient are related to psychological disorder. So psychological treatment and counseling are effective on blood pressure, heart diseases and the other psychosomatic cases. All these are due to ‘Pradnyaparadha’ as defined by Charaka.
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The evils done by human beings are due to the corrupted intelligence, morale and memory are known as ‘Pradnyaparadha’ and all of them explode into all kinds of disorders and show all the symptoms of psychosomatic disorders.
The disorders in natural forces directly affect body and mind. It is observed the during the period of no moon night as well as full moon night, lunar and solar eclipses we find the cases of hysteria, epilepsy and the attacks of lunacy. Of course deep research experiments are necessary. The Rigvedic Purushasukta says “ÖÓ¦ü´ÖÖ ´Ö­ÖÃÖÖê •ÖÖŸÖ:… The moon produced from the mind of that Virat Purusha. As the moon approaches near earth during the full moon and no moon days, the natural instincts in human bodies emerge with great force. The moon is also the source of the strength and life in plants and that is why the herbal medicines are effective on psychosomatic disorders.


The Contribution Of Yoga And Ayurveda In The Treatment On Psychosomatic Disorders-
While treating psychosomatic patients it should not be forgotten that, they are abnormal and mentally weak patients and are very sentimental. Their reasoning and thinking powers are weak and have lost their conscience. So such persons should be comforted in very smooth and gentle way so that such symptoms will disappear slowly. While treating physical diseases we can see the limbs, organs, their structure and shape and the effects of the medical treatment but that is not with the psychosomatic patients, at least psychosomatic symptoms must be attended and experienced personally, they may not be the same in all patients. Somatic symptoms may be the same but the psychological reasons may be different. The experts may detect and locate them. Here EEG or CT Scan may not be helpful because mind cannot be seen in any experiment. So very careful treatment is necessary. Instead of only oral drugs, capsules and pills, we have to put stress on increasing mental strength of the patient. Ayurveda explains the treatment in the following formula in the verse-
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It means that such patients should be encouraged by giving the notion of intellect, courage and spiritual power and that is the best treatment for them. The origin of hypnotism is found here. The positive suggestions to the mind are proved fruitful. Ayurvedic treatment is of three types
1. Daivavyapashraya
2. Yuktivyapashraya
3. Sattavajaya
The third one recommended for the patients having psychosomatic disorders, through the sources of spiritual knowledge, courage and scientific knowledge.
The Yogic Pranayama – breath control, meditation, and concentration reduce the psychological tensions, and the power of reasoning and thinking are developed. Charaka says-
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There is complete end of all the sufferings in Yoga as well as salvation. Yoga leads the soul to the path of salvation. So Yoga is the initial and essential step to attain salvation.
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The diseases coming out of psychosomatic disorder and imbalances can be cured by knowledge, spiritual power, courage, memory and Samadhi. When the soul is linked with mind, mind to sense organs and sense organs to different good and bad experiences, we have the notion of happiness and unhappiness and we get lost in them. But when the mind is withdrawn from the senses and diverted to soul and rest there permanently we are free from sufferings and this state of mind is called ‘Chittavruttinirodha’, which means to gain complete control over mind and instincts. This salvation can be gained in this life only and it is called ‘Jeevanmukti’. Here is total abscense of Triguna Sattva, Raja and Tama, disappearance of past actions (Purvakarma), liberation from the bondages of Karma. Yoga leads the soul to that aim of complete salvation, the Samadhi in Yogic terminology. So in order to gain control over psychosomatic disorder to conquer the mind, to get rid of all the tensions we have to take the help of the Yoga along with Ayurveda.
Prevention And Non Recurrence Treatment-
Ayurveda aims at curing the diseases as well as to prevent them forever in our body. Prevention is always better than cure. For this Ayurveda recommends Achara Rasayana and Sadvruttapalana. The power of Sattva strengthens our mind. Good moral behaviour, knowledge of spiritual power and its pursuit, meditation of God, to pursue the eternal truth, to follow the rules and regulations of good manners, duties towards our elders, parents, families, society, nation, to keep ourselves away from all kinds of sins, physical as well as mental, to respect our parents, teachers, saints, sages and holy persons, to obtain their blessings, to be kind to all, to do good to all, to earn the money through good and moral sources, to use it for the good purposes and for the welfare of the others, to go on pilgrimages, to read and follow the teachings of holy scriptures are the ways to Sadvruttapalana and Achar Rasayana.
It is seen that the distinguishing line between physical and mental disorders is not very clear. Many times both the symptoms are intermingled with each other and it becomes a complicated case and here the patient needs proper guidance and further research work is necessary. Let’s hope that this conference may inspire, encourage and lead to such research work.

References-
Charakasamhita
Sushrutasamhita
Vagbhatasamhita
Bhagad Gita
Patanjali Yogasutras


Author- Dr. Gopal Meghashyam Sawkar,
Lecturer, School Of Health Sciences,
Yashawantrao Chavan Maharashtra Open University,
Nashik
Phone- 0253-Off.-2230718, Res.- 2372315,
Mobile- 9422758069
Email- gsawkar@gmail.com, g_sawkar@yahoo.com

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